Country Infos

Country Profile Manager:
Emma Svensson
Swedish Board of Agriculture

A theoretical test of result- based payment schemes for reduction of nutrients




The aim of this case study was to develop ideas of result-based design of agri-environmental measures. We designed an online tool that was used in discussion with stakeholders to try out a concept. The concept builds upon an earlier report by the Swedish Board of Agriculture and the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management and was inspired by scientific articles exploring result-based approach based on modelled outcome, expectations from stakeholders as well as networking activities and pilots in other countries.


Sidemo-Holm, W., H. G. Smith, M. V. Brady (2018). ”Improving agricultural pollution abatement through result-based payment schemes,” Land Use Policy, 77:209-2019

Bartkowski, B., N. Droste, M. Ließ, W. Sidemo-Holm, U. Weller and M. V. Brady (2021). "Payments by modelled results: A novel design for agri-environmental schemes." Land Use Policy, 102: 105230.


Location of the scheme

one region

The area is part of the Southern Baltic Water District and within Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. This means e.g. specific rules for handling and spreading manure and access to agri-environmental measures (AEMs) such as buffer strips, catch crops and spring tillage.

The area is located south of Sweden,  close to a lake called Roxen. The area was also one out of 20 pilot areas for a catchment officer project. 

  • Agricultural land: appr. 17 000hectars
  • Number of farmers with more than 50 hectars in the area: appr. 120
  • Main crops: winter wheat (fodder, ethanol), rapeseed, ley for milk and beef production

Duration of the scheme

Since: 2019-2021, finalization of summary in swedish during 2023.

Objective(s) of the scheme / project

  • Water quality

Which indicators are used?

  • Other

The concept was based on modelled outcome, taking into account e.g. clay content and risk of erosion.

Design of scheme / project

  • Hybrid result based payment with complementary management based payments

The study included interviews and discussions with stakeholders and the development of a technical tool. The tool show the modelled effect on reduction of nitrogen and phosphorus of different measures. The measures are catch crops, buffer strips, structural liming and constructed wetlands. The tool can be found here https://waterguide.online/nutrient-loss and the manual for the tool here version 2021-11-05 (slu.se) 

By which fund(s) is the scheme / project implemented?

  • Others

Part of an Interreg financed project in Baltic Sea Region.

How are the incentives (payment levels) calculated?

  • Other

The concept we tried can base the payment on value of eco-system service

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